Friday, March 20, 2020

I Never Promissed You A Rose Garden Essays - Films, Free Essays

I Never Promissed You A Rose Garden Essays - Films, Free Essays I Never Promissed You A Rose Garden In I NEVER PROMISED YOU A ROSE GARDEN we see how one mans reality is not necessarily that of another mans reality. We as humans do not think exactly the same we all think in a different way, these distinctions will be proven. By seeing into the mind of the main character and comparing her thoughts to the people around her, the thesis will be proven. We are all guilty of retreating into some sort of lunacy, we all are guilty of talking to our selves; this sort of deportment will send some mixed messages to people. These messages will propel them to the assumption that they are not normal. They are of to their own world. Also proving, with the use of the protagonist that sometimes being crazy can help cleans the core of one's being and feel good, that for once you can gratify your fantasy. Perspectives play a grand roll in whether someone is mentally stable or not, it could be miss interpretation or personal feeling. Who is to say that a mad man cannot have an opinion? To him we are th e crazy ones. This is a case were majority rule is a determinant. We all live independent lives from one another this is human nature, we do this to have peace and serenity, to be alone but some loneliness we can do without. Deborah's reason for being a mentally unstable young girl is that she felt alone and not needed by the world. Normally as children, we had imaginary friends; Deborah's solitude led her to divert to a world where she is liked, loved and cherished. At one time-strange to think of it now-the gods of Yr had been companions-secret, princely sharers of her loneliness. In camp, where she had been hated. (Pg. 55, I NEVER PROMISED YOU A ROSE GARDEN). The girls at the camp perceived her to be strange, anomalous. This in turn drove her deeper into her madness only because she was different. This type of injustice can not be aloud it is morally unjust but we over see it and continue with the atrocity. That same savagery that has driven Deborah into her own sheltered world away from ours that same savageness stabs us all but we are develope d enough to fight back with a stable mind. Deborah's interaction with other people is what society would call unhealthy. Deborah would sometimes fall into deep trances that would be vicious she would end up in Yr, She saw the doctor's mouth moving, and imagined that it was spewing questions and accusations. She began to fall There was utter darkness for a long time, seen only in bands of across the eye. (Pg. 31). Near the termination of chapter, six she falls into a deep mystic abstraction with Yr and she speaks with one of the people there named Aterrabae. Aterrabae made Deborah take a tin can and start mutilating her arm to prove that she is different then the people from earth (society's reality) you were never one of them, not ever. You are wholly different.(Pg.51). Deborah's reality is so dominant that it forces her to believe that it is the germane reality, we may see it as madness but she sees it as her reality. Using ones imagination can be a form of madness, a level of self-escape. Escaping into your own delusion can be exhilarating, mellow and tempting. A person can not see another person on the street and say: that person is daft. Of course to that person he is not crazy you are. He feels good in his mental environment, it probably is harmonious or exciting, who knows. Our mind is very mysterious we lock out certain passions, thoughts and fantasies if we let them escape they could be shunned upon by civilization. The enticing thoughts that we have are the reason why we continue to live in this crazy world. e, quio quio quaru ar Yr aedat temoluqu' braown elepr' kyryr (brush winged, I soar above the canyons of your sleep singing) (Pg.131). This quote said by Deborah illustrates the beauty of madness with the poetic language. Along with language, it has exquisite

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Richard M. Nixon Biography and Presidency

Richard M. Nixon Biography and Presidency Richard Nixons Childhood and Education: Nixon was born on January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California. He grew up in California in poverty, helping out at his fathers grocery store. He was raised a Quaker. He had two brothers die of tuberculosis. He went to local public schools. He graduated first in his high school class in 1930. he attended Whittier College from 1930-34 and graduated with a history degree. He then went to Duke University Law School and graduated in 1937. He was then admitted to the bar. Family Ties: Nixon was the of  Francis Frank Anthony Nixon, a gas station owner and grocer and  Hannah Milhous, a devout Quaker. He had four brothers.  On June 21, 1940, Nixon married  Thelma Catherine Pat Ryan, a Business Teacher. Together they had two  daughters, Patricia and Julie. Richard Nixons Career Before the Presidency: Nixon began practicing law in 1937. He tried his hand at owning a business which failed before joining the navy to serve in World War II. He rose to become a lieutenant commander and resigned in March, 1946. In 1947, he was elected a U.S. Representative. Then, in 1950 he became a U.S. Senator. He served in that capacity until being elected Vice President under Dwight Eisenhower in 1953. He ran for President in 1960 but lost to John F. Kennedy. He also lost the Governorship of California in 1962. Becoming the President: In 1968, Richard Nixon became the Republican candidate for President with Spiro Agnew as his Vice President. He defeated Democrat Hubert Humphrey and American Independent George Wallace. Nixon received 43% of the popular vote and 301 electoral votes.In 1972, he was the obvious choice for renomination with Agnew as his running mate again. He was opposed by Democrat George McGovern. He won with 61% of the vote and 520 electoral votes. Events and Accomplishments of Richard Nixon’s Presidency: Nixon inherited  the war with Vietnam  and during his time in office, he cut the number of soldiers down from over 540,000 troops to 25,000. By 1972, all U.S. ground combat troops were withdrawn.On April 30, 1970, U.S. and South Vietnamese troops raided Cambodia to try and capture the Communist headquarters. Protests erupted around the nation. The most visible was at Kent State University. Students protesting at the campus were fired on by the Ohio National Guard killing four and wounding nine.In January 1973, a peace treaty was signed whereby all U.S. forces left withdrew from Vietnam, and all prisoners of war were released. Soon after the agreement, however, fighting resumed, and the Communists eventually won.In February 1972,  President Nixon  traveled to China to try and encourage peace and more contact between the two nations. He was the first to visit the country.Acts to protect the environment were huge during Nixons time in office. The  Environmental Protection Agen cy  was created in 1970. On July 20, 1969,  Apollo 11  landed on the moon and man took his first step outside of earth. This fulfilled Kennedys goal to land a man on the moon before the end of the decade.When Nixon ran for reelection, it was discovered that five individuals from the  Committee to Reelect the President  (CREEP) had broken into the Democratic National Headquarters at the  Watergate  business complex. Two reporters for the  Washington Post, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein,  uncovered a massive cover-up  of the break-in. Nixon had installed a taping system and when the Senate asked for tapes recorded during his time in office he refused to hand them over due to  executive privilege. The  Supreme Court  did not agree with him, and he was forced to give them up. The tapes showed that while Nixon was not involved in the break-in he was involved in its cover-up. In the end, Nixon resigned when he was faced with impeachment. He left office on August 9, 1974. Post-Presidential Period: After Richard Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974, he retired to San Clemente, California. In 1974, Nixon was pardoned by President Gerald Ford. In 1985, Nixon mediated a dispute between major league baseball and the umpire association. He traveled extensively. He also provided advice to various politicians including the Reagan administration. He wrote about his experiences and foreign policy. Nixon died on April 22, 1994. Historical Significance: While many important events occurred during Nixons administration including the end of the Vietnam War, his visit to China, and putting a man on the moon, his time was marred by the Watergate Scandal. Faith in the office of the presidency declined with the revelations of this event, and the way that the press dealt with the office changed forever from this time on.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Ellis College Admission Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ellis College Admission - Essay Example Ellis College believes in delivering superior education to the students. I can take the first major step towards achieving my career goal at Ellis. I do not have an American diploma but what I know is Ellis values the experience gained by the individual over the years, which will help me as I have plenty of experience in the profession. I am planning to join another organization because right now I have a decent job, but with not much of growth potential. I firmly believe that to grow up, there must be opportunities for capable persons, which in turn provide motivation to perform still better. 5. As you advance in your career, what are your priorities related to advancement? For example, these priorities may include finding a stable position, reaching a certain salary level, fulfilling a personal interest, using specialized skills, being challenged intellectually, or providing benefits to others. You may have other priorities than the examples listed here, and you are encouraged to discuss them. My short-term goal is to gain credentials as a qualified learner, who’s ready to accept the challenges and learn from them. Therefore my first priority is to reach a stable position using specialized skills. Ellis College will help me in polishing my skills. I’ll do all my sincere efforts to consolidate my position thereafter. And after reaching a certain salary level I’ll consider having my own enterprise. Having received so much from the society, I consider it my solemn duty to pay my due share back to the society as well. I’ll, therefore, do my bit to help in reducing the agony of orphan kids by providing them with toys and books. Ellis College is certain to provide me the edge in interpreting the challenges arising out of globalization and competition. I am sure Ellis can help me in restructuring my knowledge and broadening the knowledge base.

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Week Eight Online Question Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Week Eight Online Question - Essay Example This was in line with the theories of David Ricardo, the English political economist, who argued in favor of hard currency that would enable the economy to escape the cycles of booms and depressions. This, Andrew Jackson and his supporters felt, would be a lasting solution to the problems that America faced at a time when it was expanding rapidly and monetary policies were a widely debated issue. Jackson’s stance on this matter is considered t be crucial in his re-election to the post of the president of the United States of America. hands of people who lived outside America and those sections of the American society which belonged to the upper strata (Andrew). His efforts according to the speeches that he delivered regarding the future of the Bank of the United States were directed towards the establishment of a nation that would ensure the equality of the people who stayed in it. This, Jackson felt, could be achieved only through a return from credit to hard currency, something that David Ricardo had suggested. His views were appropriated by Jackson and his political friends in order to establish an economic order that they felt would not allow the re-establishment of situations like that which occurred during the panic of 1819, when the banks, since they had lent money that had become less valuable due to inflation, experienced a shortage. Ricardian currency theories required that the banks regulate the monetary pressures of inflation and deflation through regulating the flow of money into the economy. Jackso n’s views were thus, not completely against banks, but called for a reassessment of the roles that banks played in the American economy that would prevent a repeat of the events of 1819. A system was put in place according to which only the amount of money the equivalent of which was present in the bank in

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Handedness and Lateralization

Handedness and Lateralization Handedness and Lateralization Cortical Organisation and Lateralization Of The Brain In Handedness And Dominance According to Annett most people in our society define handedness as the hand that you use for writing (1970). Researchers define handedness as the hand that performs faster or specifically on physical tests. Paul Broca (1979), suggested that a persons handedness was opposite from that specialised hemisphere (so a right-handed person probably has a left-hemispheric language specialization). However, a majority of left-hemispheric brain specialise for language abilities. Many researchers have try to this correlation between handedness and brain lateralisation. The key reason that hand-brain link is important and is an accepted methodology is that clinicians use handedness as a marker for brain lateralization. Language is a distributed cerebral network with differences in area involvement that relate to specific language functions (Frith et al., 1991). Vital regions in network lateralize to one hemisphere and determine lesion (Ojemann, 1991). In most people this lateralization is to the left. The only consistent information on the variability of hemispheric control between individuals are aphasias following a stroke or hemispheric inactivation by procedure in patients with brain lesions (Wada and Rasmussen, 1960). Pertaining to the unevenness of language control there is a chance of functional hemispheric reform (Rasmussen and Milner, 1977). It assumes that variation from left hemisphere language power is related to a difference like left-handedness. In right-handed subjects there is puzzling correlation of verbal language and hand dominance, both confines to a small area to the left hemisphere (Mayeux and Kandel, 1991). The actual variability of language lateralization in the general popu lation is practically unknown. Evaluations in a representative number of healthy subjects do not exist because, in the past, no technique was available to determine language lateralization effectively and non-invasively. This lack of information has hampered the assessment of language disturbances. There is an ongoing debate on the role of the right hemisphere in recovery from aphasia after left hemispheric strokes (Weiller et al., 1993Go; Heiss et al., 1997Go; Mimura et al., 1998Go). Particularly, in retrospective evaluations it would be important to know how many patients with left hemispheric strokes and transient disturbance of language can be expected to have been right hemisphere language dominant and to have suffered speech impairment due to other, more unspecific causes like decreased vigilance. Moreover, knowledge concerning the exact incidence of right hemisphere language dominance in healthy righthanders would be important for functional neuroimaging studies. Here, due to lack of information, researchers often need to rely on the assumption that restricting examinations to healthy right-handers will control for a possible variability in hemispheric dominance. Recently, a simplified functional imaging technique, functional transcranial Doppler-ultrasonography (fTCD) has become available (Aaslid, 1987Go; Hartje et al., 1994Go; Silvestrini et al., 1994Go; Rihs et al., 1995Go). It allows determination of hemispheric dominance in individual subjects in an effective, reliable and non-invasive way (Deppe et al., 1997Go; Knecht et al., 1998). This technique has now made it possible to establish the variability in the side and degree of language dominance in a representative number of healthy subjects. fTCD measures cerebral perfusion changes related to neuronal activation in a way comparable to functional MRI (fMRI) and 15O-PET (Kuschinsky, 1991Go; Jueptner and Weiller, 1995Go; Deppe et al., 1997Go, 1998Go). fTCD makes it possible to compare perfusion changes (by measuring blood flow velocities) within the territories of the two middle cerebral arteries (MCAs), which comprise the potential language areas (van der Zwan and Hillen, 1991Go). It thus provides an operational index of laterality which, in many respects, resembles the one obtained by the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (Wada test) (Wada and Rasmussen, 1960Go). Determination of language lateralization by fTCD matches precisely both the results of fMRI and the Wada test with concordance in every single case (Deppe et al., 1998Go; Knecht et al., 1998aGo). As in many previous studies of this kind, word generation was chosen as an activation paradigm because it is one of the most effective measures of language production (Neils-Strunjas, 1998Go). On this basis language dominance was determined in a total of 188 healthy subjects. Left-handers were excluded from the study because of possible confounding effects of handedness on hemispheric dominance (Kimura, 1983Go). A careful history for brain damage in the prenatal period or in infancy was taken in order to exclude subjects with possible plastic reorganization of hemispheric dominance after brain lesions (Rasmussen and Milner, 1977Go). The work was part of the Munster functional imaging study on the variability of hemispheric specialization in health and disease (Deppe et al., 1997Go; Knecht et al., 1998aGo, bGo). Hemispheric language dominance was assessed in 188 healthy volunteers with 111 females (mean age 26  ± 5.5 years, range 17-50 years) and 77 males (mean age 27  ± 3.7 years, range 21-40 years). Subjects were excluded if, on a standardized questionnaire, they reported delayed or disturbed language development or a history of other neurological disorders, particularly perinatal asphyxia or kernicterus, head trauma, loss of consciousness, epileptic seizures, meningitis or encephalitis. They were further required to have successfully completed the equivalent of high school (`Realschule or `Gymnasium). Right-handedness was assessed by a handedness index in the Edinburgh Inventory of greater than 30% (Oldfield, 1971Go). Left-handers were excluded from the study, as were right-handers with a score for right-h andedness lower than 30%, because, due to the small number of these subjects, an adequate evaluation of the effect of handedness on language lateralization would not have been possible. Approximately 75% of the subjects recruited had an index of more than 80% right-handedness. All subjects gave informed consent to participate in this study, which was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Mà ¼nster. Assessment of hemispheric language dominance was performed by a standardized fTCD technique (used in a number of previous studies) and a word generation task, validated by direct comparison with the intracarotid amobarbital injection and fMRI (Knecht et al., 1996Go, 1997Go, 1998aGo, bGo; Deppe et al., 1997Go, 1998Go). Briefly, subjects were presented with a letter on a computer screen 2.5 s after a cueing tone. Silently they had to find as many words as possible starting with the displayed letter. For fTCD an activation paradigm strongly based on verbal fluency was used, corresponding to the fields of reported female superiority (Basso et al., 1982Go; Pizzamiglio et al., 1985Go). Task performance was controlled by instructing the subjects to report the words after a second auditory signal following 15 s after presentation of the letter. All words had to be reported within a 5-s time period. The next letter was presented in the same way after a relaxation period of 60 s. Letters were presented in random order and no letter was displayed more than once. `Q, `X and `Y were excluded because very few words have these as initial letters. Changes in the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in the basal arteries were measured as an indicator of the downstream increase of the regional metabolic activity during the language task. Dual fTCD of the MCAs was performed with two 2 MHz transducer probes attached to a headband and placed bilaterally at the temporal skull windows (1Go). Details of the insonation technique, particularly the correct identification of the MCA, have been published elsewhere (Ringelstein et al., 1990Go). The spectral envelope curves of the Doppler signal were analysed off-line with the fTCD software AVERAGE developed by one of the authors (M.D.) (Deppe et al., 1997Go). 1 Schematic diagram of the way language lateralization was determined. Perfusion increases and therefore neuronal activation during word generation were assessed in the vascular territories of the left (marked in red) and right (marked in green) MCAs, which comprise the language areas. This was achieved by fTCD measurements of the CBFV changes in these arteries. Systemic effects were eliminated by calculating the differences in perfusion changes between sides. Averaging the responses over 20 repetitions (on average) in each individual made the results highly reliable. (For details, see Deppe et al., 1997.) After automated artefact rejection, data were integrated over the corresponding cardiac cycles, segmented into epochs which related to the cueing tone and then averaged. The epochs were set to begin 15 s before and to end 35 s after the cueing tone. The mean velocity in the 15-s pre-cueing interval (Vpre.mean) was taken as the base-line value. The relative CBFV changes (dV) during cerebral activation were calculated using the formula: dV = [V(t) Vpre.mean] x 100 / Vpre.mean where V(t) is the CBFV over time. Relative CBFV changes from repeated presentations of letters (on average 20 runs) were averaged time-locked to the cueing tone. The number of repetitions was less than 22, because no letter was presented more than once during the word generation task. A functional TCD laterality index LIfTCDwas calculated using the formula: Statistics The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess the hypothesis that laterality indices in males and females were drawn from different populations. Unlike the parametric t-test for independent samples or the Mann-Whitney U test, which tests for differences in the location of two samples (differences in means, differences in average ranks, respectively), the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is sensitive to differences in the general shapes of the distributions in the two samples, i.e. to differences in dispersion and skewness (Spence et al., 1990Go). The Mann-Whitney test for equivalence (Wellek, 1996Go) was employed to confirm equivalence of laterality indices in men and women. A significant result in this test provides a strong positive measure for a lack of gender differences in laterality indices. We tested the null hypothesis H0: |P[LImale > LIfemale] 1/2| >={varepsilon}versus the alternative hypothesis of equivalence H1: |P[LImale > LIfemale] 1/2| In six of the 194 right-handed subjects determination of language lateralization was not possible due to lack of a temporal bone window, i.e. inadequate ultrasonographic penetration of the skull by the ultrasound beam. In the remaining 188 subjects (59% females, 41% males) the overall distribution of language lateralization was bimodal with 7.5% being right hemisphere and 92.5% left hemisphere language dominant (2Go). The distribution of language lateralization was equivalent in men and women (3Go). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test did not detect any significant differences between females and males in the overall distribution (P > 0.05). In the subgroup of left hemisphere language dominant subjects, the Mann-Whitney test for equivalence showed equivalence with P The average number of words found during the activation task per letter presented was not statistically different between men and women (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.81) or subjects with left or right hemisphere language dominance (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.26). It was also independent of the index of lateralization (correlation coefficient r = 0.027). These are the first data on the natural distribution of language dominance in a large series of healthy right-handed subjects. They demonstrate equivalence of language lateralization for word generation in males and females, and they suggest that 1 in 13 healthy right-handed subjects is right hemisphere dominant for language. Methodology There is debate whether language can be treated as a separate mental faculty or should be approached as part of a more general cognitive system (Fodor, 1983Go). Moreover, language comprises receptive and expressive aspects and is intertwined with prosody, memory and attention (Knecht et al., 1996Go; Binder et al., 1997Go). Therefore, the assessment of language lateralization based on a single activation task provides just one index of the interindividual variability in language processing. This approach can nevertheless serve as a first step in elucidating the factors underlying the diversity of large scale neural language organization. fTCD lends itself to determination of hemispheric language dominance. The index of lateralization obtained by fTCD based on word generation is very reliable and closely corresponds to (i) the outcome of the intracarotid amobarbital procedure and (ii) the index of lateralization obtained by fMRI (Deppe et al., 1998Go; Knecht et al., 1998aGo). Other techniques like head turning, event-related potentials, transcranial high frequency magnetic stimulation or the dichotic listening test used for the evaluation of language dominance have so far failed to provide results that are reproducible and in sufficient concordance with the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (Bryden and Allard, 1981Go; Jancke et al., 1992Go; Jennum et al., 1994Go; Segalowitz and Berge, 1995Go; OLeary et al., 1996Go; Hugdahl et al., 1997Go). Unlike the intracarotid amobarbital procedure and as opposed to brain lesions, functional imaging techniques including fTCD assess brain activation and not inactivation. They are set to determine the location and relative amount of the maximal activation while diffuse or bilateral activations are cancelled out. Thus, fTCD is insensitive to a lesser activation in the contralateral hemisphere. Moreover, fTCD cannot determine whether an activated region during a task is a critical region that, when damaged, will result in a loss of that particular function. This shortcoming holds for all functional imaging techniques. However, the fact that determination of language lateralization by fMRI and fTCD correspond closely to that determined by the intracarotid amobarbital inactivation suggests that activated regions match critical regions and therefore provide essential information on the risk for language loss (Desmond et al., 1995Go; Binder et al., 1996Go; Knecht et al., 1998aGo). Sex Fuelled by the general interest in `la petite diffà ©rence, the lack of information about the natural distribution of language dominance has led to far-reaching speculations about possible differences in language lateralizations between the sexes. This discussion has been characterized by a high acceptance for positive results. Thus, despite considerable data to the contrary, there is a strong belief that language in women, on average, is less lateralized than in men (Bakan and Putnam, 1974Go; Levy and Reid, 1976Go; McGlone, 1980Go; McKeever et al., 1983Go; Hough et al., 1994Go; Rugg, 1995Go). The idea of an increased bilaterality in women has received support by a recent fMRI study in 19 males and 19 females (Shaywitz et al., 1995Go) in which activation related to a rhyming task was found to be more bilateral in women than in men. It has been conjectured that an increased bilaterality of language in women would lead to a decreased susceptibility to unilateral infarctions explaining a greater male than female proportion of aphasics (McGlone, 1980Go). Kertesz and Sheppard then showed that aphasias were as frequent in males as in females, as long as sex differences in the incidence of infarcts were taken into account (Kertesz and Sheppard, 1981Go). Similar results were obtained in a more recent epidemiological study (Pedersen et al., 1995Go). Recently, using fMRI, Frost and colleagues found no differences between sexes during a language comprehension task when group averages were compared (Frost et al., 1999Go). Our data provide the first direct evidence that language lateralization during word generation in men and women is also equivalent in variablity. In fact, they not only show a lack of significant differences but they positively demonstrate significance of equivalence in healthy subjects even though this finding is based on a word generation task, i.e. a field of reported female superiority (Kimura and Harshman, 1984Go). Equivalence of hemispheric lateralization between sexes during word generation does not exclude gender di fferences in subfunctions of language like rhyming, which we did not investigate. As was pointed out before, such a difference has been reported by Shaywitz and colleagues in a small series of subjects examined by fMRI (Shaywitz et al., 1995Go). However, in line with our results, these researchers did not find gender differences in other language tasks. Right hemisphere language dominance The predominance of right-handedness and left hemisphere language lateralization has led some theorists to suggest that a gestural system of communication with dominance of the right hand provided the neural architecture for vocal articulation in human evolution (Hewes, 1973Go; Kimura, 1987Go). If indeed handedness and language were coupled because they share the same neural resources, then any deviation from this pattern would have to be pathological. Right hemisphere language dominance in right-handers or left hemisphere language dominance in left-handers reported from the intracarotid amobarbital procedure does not challenge this view, because this procedure is only performed in patients with brain pathology. However, the present findings in healthy subjects indicate that even under natural conditions the association between handedness and language dominance is not an absolute one. Because 75% of subjects were strongly right-handed (>80%) and the remaining had handedness indices o f >30%, the effect of the degree of handedness on language lateralization could not be evaluated in the present study. Comparison of left- and right-handers will be necessary to test whether a relative association between handedness and language dominance exists in healthy subjects. The extreme argument could be put forward that all of our presumed healthy subjects with right hemisphere dominance must have suffered covert brain damage resulting in a shift of language into the right hemisphere. A similar argument has been made to explain left-handedness in healthy subjects (Coren, 1990Go). We believe that covert brain damage was unlikely. The medical history in all subjects was unrevealing and the scholastic achievement was similar. The average number of words produced during the task did not differ between subjects with left or right hemisphere language dominance and the pattern of language lateralization variability was bimodal with maxima for left- and right-hemisphere dominance (2Go). If there had been subclinical damage to language relevant areas in the left hemisphere resulting in a shift to the right, one would have expected impaired word fluency and more cases with little lateralization because of a bilateral representation of language functions. This was not the case. We therefore suggest that right hemisphere language dominance is not a pathological but a natural phenomenon. Previous estimates of `atypical right hemisphere language dominance were either based on the results from the intracarotid amobarbital test in patients evaluated for resective neurosurgery or on the occurrence of `crossed aphasia, i.e. aphasias after right hemispheric lesions. In patients with epilepsy submitted to the intracarotid amobarbital test the number of right-handers with right hemisphere language dominance was 4% in a large series and rose to 12% when a left hemisphere lesion was defined (Rasmussen and Milner, 1977Go). Because the Wada test is only performed in patients with brain lesions, which are often associated with a secondary transfer of cortical functions from the damaged to the intact hemisphere, these numbers cannot be extrapolated to healthy subjects (Helmstaedter et al., 1994Go). By evaluation of stroke-patients with crossed aphasia, the incidence of right hemisphere language dominance in right-handers has been inferred to be between 1 and 2% in the majority of series (Gloning, 1977Go; Borod et al., 1985Go; Kertesz, 1985Go). On the one hand, this low estimate of right hemisphere language dominance in previously healthy subjects made aphasias in right-handers after right-sided lesions seem an exceptional event and has resulted in almost 100 reports on `crossed aphasia in the last 30 years. On the other hand, difficulties in the assessment of language performance due to physical exhaustion and deficits in sustained attention in the early stages after stroke and reorganizational restitution in the later stages may have facilitated an underdiagnosis of aphasia in right hemispheric stroke patients in many studies. Not every patient with a cerebral infarction in the respective language dominant hemisphere will suffer damage of the language areas and become aphasic. The overall rate of aphasia due to stroke has been found to be 38% in the acute state and 18% at discharge from the hospital (Pedersen et al., 1995Go). Reasoning from the effects of brain activation to the effects of brain lesions is problematic but results from activation studies may be conceptually useful to the understanding of lesion-deficit variability in the clinical context (Willmes and Poeck, 1993Go). In a single recent study on 880 stroke patients it was reported, in passing, that of right-handed aphasics 9% had right hemispheric lesions (Pedersen et al., 1995Go). In a study on language deficits in servicemen who had suffered penetrating brain wounds, 18% of the aphasics had suffered right hemispheric lesions (Mohr et al., 1980Go). However, here the possible effects of diffuse brain damage by the impact of a bullet and the effect of variable handedness pose methodological limitations. Our cohort was similar in age to these soldiers. We found an incidence of 7.5% of right hemisphere dominance in our activation study of healthy subjects. This combined evidence suggests that about 1 in 13 previously healthy right-handed patients with a right hemispheric infarction could be at risk of suffering language impairments becaus e this is the hemisphere dominant for word generation. Conversely, after left hemispheric infarctions right-handed patients, who in retrospective evaluations seem to have recovered well from language disturbances, and on fMRI or PET may even show language related activation in the right hemisphere, may do so because they had been right hemisphere language dominant to begin with. Presently, we do not know the relevance of the extent of language lateralization by fTCD. Low indices of lateralization indicate that there is a bihemispheric activation during word generation. Although reported in studies based on the Wada test, bilateral language representation in stroke patients has probably been neglected because persistent aphasia in these subjects may only occur after bilateral damage (Benbadis et al., 1995Go). This is very rare and patients rarely survive. However, subjects with low indices of lateralization may be the ones who, after unilateral damage of traditional language regions, do not show marked aphasia and recover well by further recruitment of the intact hemisphere. Aaslid R. Visually evoked dynamic blood flow response of the human cerebral circulation. Stroke 1987; 18: 771-5.[Abstract/FreeFullText] Bakan P, Putnam W. Right-left discrimination and brain lateralization. Sex differences. Arch Neurol 1974; 30: 334-5.[Abstract/FreeFullText] Basso A, Capitani E, Moraschini S. Sex differences in recovery from aphasia. Cortex 1982; 18: 469-75.[Web of Science][Medline] Benbadis SR, Dinner DS, Chelune GJ, Piedmonte M, Là ¼ders HO. 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Friday, January 17, 2020

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Technology Essay

Chief among there is its convenience, efficiency and effectiveness in work, study, and research. It must be said that there are a number of substantial problems associated with the phenomenon of modernized technology. The one that springs immediately to mind is the potential risk of overusing technology in our lives. At the other end of the spectrum, there are many and varied merits to the concept of easily accessible up-to-date technology. Perhaps most importantly, it assists people to carry out their work faster. In my own experience, I found that technological appliances such as computer and mobile phone have assisted me a great deal in my occupation. As an accountant, I usually liaise with my clients to discuss about their account issues. Sometimes, problems can be solved via only a phone call. In addition, the aid of computer has reduced amount of my work significantly. At the end of the day, the positives effects of using digital technology and its convenience and efficiency for most people are more convincing than the negative aspects. If digital technology were never invented, our lives would be never wonderful as they should be. There is a school of thought which contends that features, talents and shortcomings humanity is born with determine our social skills and growth considerably more than any education and real-life scenarios throughout our lives. From my personal perspective, I am unable to concur with this view. First and foremost, it is clearly evident that while beasts inherit all the intuition needed for existence when they come into the world, humanity is virtually useless at birth and takes the first 20 years of life acquiring survival prowess. / To begin with, it is immediately apparent that off spring inherit incredible genetic †hard-wired† abilities at birth, but unless they are encouraged to evolve these, such talents will manifest themselves. / First and foremost, it is clearly evident that if an individual has skill at something, it becomes pparent in earlier youth. People do not wake up one morning as excellent/superb athletes or academics at the age of 35. Similarly, lack of ability or learning difficulties are usually noticed at a very young age. This strongly recommends that babies are neither born with distinct abilities nor they are. †¦.. At the end of the day, in the course of our daily existence, any educative processes and life-changing events exert far g reater control than aspects, natural abilities as well as weak points that are contained in our genetic make-up.